Eastern Ratsnake

The adult Eastern Ratsnake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) is black, but usually shows remnants of its juvenile pattern. It is a black and white checkerboard on the front half, and then turns to a solid dark tone towards the tail. The Ratsnake has weakly keeled scales. They are the only "weakly keeled" snakes. Adults may be 5-6 feet long (the longest documented in Vermont is 75 inches). Ratsnakes are great climbers.


The Eastern Ratsnake is typically found in and around old buildings, old fields, and edges near rocky areas and ledges.

The Eastern Ratsnake is a wide-ranging eastern snake that is represented by five currently recognized subspecies: the Black Ratsnake, Gray Ratsnake, Yellow Ratsnake, Texas Ratsnake, and Everglades Ratsnake. The Black Ratsnake is the most widespread of the subspecies and is found from central Georgia north to Vermont and southern Ontario, and west to Illinois and Louisiana. All of the Eastern Ratsnakes found in the Northeast are Black Ratsnakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis), and all of the descriptions in this fact sheet refer to this northern subspecies.


Most of Vermont's snakes give live birth, but ratsnakes lay eggs. Between March and May, snakes will begin to emerge from the winter's hibernation. After a few weeks, the Eastern Ratsnakes will begin to seek out a mate, typically in late April, May, and early June.

Males tend to wait for the females to pass through their territory, and by using pheromones, will communicate and initiate the mating process with the female. The male snake will approach the female, line up with her and attempt to wrap his tail around hers with their vents nearly touching. Some males will grasp the female, with his mouth, to hold her in place and prevent her from trying to move away.

The male will then erect his hemipene and insert it into the female's cloaca while several small spines anchor the hemipene firmly. Mating may last only a few minutes or it may span the time of a few hours. Five weeks later, the female will lay 12 to 20 eggs. The female will lay her eggs in a hidden area, under hollow logs or leaves, or in abandoned burrows. The eggs will hatch 65 to 70 days later.

The hatchlings of Eastern Ratsnakes are vigorous eaters and will double their size rather quickly. If conditions are good, females will sometimes produce two clutches of eggs a year.


Ratsnakes are primarily known as rodent eaters, however, other food preferences do exist. As juveniles, ratsnakes will eat small lizards, baby mice, and an occasional small frog. Adult ratsnakes have a diet mainly consisting of mice and rats, but will also include chipmunks, moles, and other small rodents. Adults will also eat bird eggs and young birds that do not put up a strong fight. Ratsnakes kill their prey by constriction.


All sightings of the Eastern Ratsnake should be reported, because it is at high risk due to very restricted range and few populations throughout the state.

Threatened in Vermont

Eastern Ratsnakes are rare in Vermont, and has been designated a Species of Greatest Conservation Need in Vermont's Wildlife Action Plan and is threatened in Vermont.


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Vermont Department of Fish & Wildlife
Commissioner Christopher Herrick

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The mission of the Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department is the conservation of all species of fish, wildlife, and plants and their habitats for the people of Vermont.